Animal law is a relatively new field of law, encompassing both legislative and case law that relates to or impacts animals. It includes issues dealing with companion animals, wildlife, animals raised for food, those used in research, and those used for labor.
In 2008, the Animal Legal Defense Fund launched the Center for Animal Law Studies, a first-of-its-kind collaboration between the Animal Legal Defense Fund and Lewis & Clark Law School. As an academic and practical forum for the burgeoning field of animal law, the Center for Animal Law Studies provides essential programs and services for law students under the guidance of experienced animal law professors and attorneys.
The Rise of Animal Law Education: A Discipline Whose Time is Now- Lecture by Professor Raj Reddy, Center for Animal Law Studies (CALS) -Lewis and Clark Law School, Portland, Oregon, USA
Naturewatch Foundation's campaign manager, Mark Randell, highlights why taking animal cruelty seriously is so important to making communities safer for all. "To fail animals is to fail people. To protect animals is to protect people."
The Impact of History and Culture on Animal Justice - Pakistan x India x Nepal
The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (PCA) Act - 1960
Doordarshan Interview with Varnika Singh (lawyer representing the Federation of Indian Animal Protection Organizations (FIAPO)) and Ambika Shukla.
"So far, our society has normalized another atrocity in the form of stray animal cruelty under the guise of cultural and religious customs, economic reasons, and in some cases, refusal to improve their ethical standards including morality towards animals. People’s ingrained hatred towards stray animals can be erased if suitable courses on the value of life and coexistence are included in the curriculum beginning at the primary level."
"The Brooks Institute is dedicated to producing and disseminating outstanding, independent, academic, and public policy research and programming; and pursuing projects and initiatives focused on advancing law and policy pertaining to animals."
"Founded in 1979 by attorneys active in shaping the emerging field of animal law, the Animal Legal Defense Fund has blazed the trail for stronger enforcement of anti-cruelty laws and more humane treatment of animals in every corner of American life."
Interview with Professor Prem Chandra Rai, Kathmandu School of Law
Center for Animal Law Studies-Lewis and Clark Law School (USA) Youtube Channel
AniLex program is a new program on Animal Law provided as continuous learning by the Open University at Åbo Akademi University
Animal Rights Law Course (2020-2021) Recordings - Cambridge University. One of the key missions of the Cambridge Centre for Animal Rights Law is to give students the tools they require to understand existing animal welfare laws and to reflect critically on fundamental animal rights laws.
Welcome to the website that accompanies the textbook “Animal Rights Law”. The purpose of this website is to give you direct links to sources that will aid your study of animal rights law. It is intended to enable you to explore in more detail the issues which the textbook can only cover in outline.
The Animal Law Conference, co-presented by the Animal Legal Defense Fund and the Center for Animal Law Studies at Lewis & Clark Law School, is the central gathering point of the global animal law community and has been educating attorneys and law students about cutting-edge animal law issues for over 25 years. Relive past conferences or get caught up on sessions you missed here!
he ABA TIPS Animal Law Committee’s mission is “to address all issues concerning the intersection of animals and the law to create a paradigm shift resulting in a just world for all.” The committee is dedicated to educating both members and non-members about animal law issues, engaging in public service projects, and providing our members with various avenues to engage with others of similar interests.
The Constitution of Nepal (2015) mentions animals as the national symbols of Nepal. The cow is the national animal and the Lophophorus (Monal) is the national bird. Wildlife is also mentioned in reference to the national parks and wildlife reserves. Livestock are also present in the Constitution with respect to farming, animal health and food production
The National Penal (Code) Act, 2017 mentions animals in several places, including Chapters 2 (Offences Against Public Tranquility),Ch. 5 (Offenses Against Public Interest, Health, Safety, Convenience and Morals), Ch. 8 (Offences Against National and Public Heritages), Ch. 18 (Sexual Offences) and Ch. 27 (Offences Relating to Animals and Birds). In addition to the word "animal", the words cow, oxen and birds are specifically mentioned.
This directive is limited to pack animal and traction animals used for means of transportation or means of transporting goods; animals in commercial agricultural, industrial or occupation with a business and trade motive where weight is to be carried or pulled by the animals; it encompasses provisions regarding working hours, weight of load, provision of minimum requirements regarding food, shelter, security, health and normal behaviors and prohibits cruel treatment towards working animals by ensuring welfare involved in labor works.
"This Act provides for the protection of the environment with the proper use and management of natural resources, so as to protect the fundamental right of each citizen to live in a clean and healthy environment, provide the victim with compensation by the polluter for any damage resulting from environmental pollution or degradation, maintain a proper balance between environment and development, mitigate adverse environmental impacts on environment and biodiversity and face the challenges posed by climate change." https://www.ecolex.org/details/legislation/environment-protection-act-2019-2076-lex-faoc202860/
The Act provides for the protection of livestock health, the veterinary drugs to be administered in case of disease, the list of diseases commonly affecting the animals, quarantine procedures and restrictions to the importation and exportation of affected animals. It institutes Livestock Services, meaning with that all the activities related to the veterinary aspects of animal health, disease control and quarantine. https://www.fao.org/faolex/results/details/en/c/LEX-FAOC040217/
"The Act institutes the Nepal Veterinary Council whose main functions and task are those of regulating the veterinary profession, in terms of advice on policy and standard-setting for veterinary services, the registration of Veterinarians and in the research and exchange of scientific knowledge. The Veterinarians shall be responsible, under this Act, for their professional conduct, and misconduct shall be sanctioned. Provisions are made also in order to set and guarantee the efficiency of animal health services."
Whereas it is expedient to establish slaughterhouse and arrange for meat inspection to safeguard the health and welfare of the people in general and to control adulteration in meat and meat products and to maintain reasonable standard of meat by protecting the wholesomeness, quality and adequacy of meat.
The Regulation provides for the setting up of authorized slaughterhouse for cattle (goats, sheep, and buffaloes), poultry and swine, the ante- and post-mortem examination by the Meat Inspector, the management of slaughterhouses by the Mean Supervisor: no adulterated meat shall be put on sale and no unlicensed slaughterhouse shall butcher animals and sell their meat.
August 26, 2018 - The Supreme Court today issued an interim order, stating that safe, humane and expeditious means should be adopted for the transportation of farm animals for commercial purpose.
In the absence of finding any reference to this law/standard, this article explains that the Supreme Court of Nepal called for action to promulgate standards for humane transportation of livestock. As yet, there is nothing available online, despite many reports and websites mentioning such a law. Perhaps it only exists in the Nepali language. It is supposedly called the "Animal Transportation Standards, 2064"
This Act provides for the protection and conservation of aquatic animals.
The Act prohibits the killing and trapping of aquatic life, prohibits the closing or demolishing of doors of fish ladder, dyke or any kind of structure placed in the water to protect aquatic animals, and restricts the introduction of poison and explosive substances in water bodies for any type of use. The Act further provides for: penalties; appeals to the Court of Appeal; powers of local authorities; rule making powers of the Government; etc.
The purpose of this Act is to support the decentralization process in general and capacity building of the districts, in particular with respect to the rural infrastructure development, and to improve rural accessibility. https://www.ecolex.org/details/legislation/local-self-governance-act-2055-1999-lex-faoc074262/
* Of special note with regard to animal law is that the act directs municipalities to "To secure public interest by killing rabid and strayed dogs and specify the places to bury dead animals and birds into." under Section 96 (j)(11) "Functions, Duties and Power of Municipality"
This must be changed given that it is well known that culling of stray animals does nothing to prevent rabies or reduce the population of dogs.
The Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare is an agreement among people and nations to recognize that animals are sentient and can suffer, to respect their welfare needs, and to end animal cruelty – for good. All countries should sign this very important initiative to protect people, animals and the environment. Read more on the link below. Nepal could consider becoming a signatory to this declaration.
"The National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, 2029 (1973) -This National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, consisting of 34 sections and completed by one Schedule, aims to manage the national parks, protect wildlife and their habitat, regulate hunting and conserve, promote, develop, and make appropriate arrangements for and the use of places which are of special importance from the point of view of natural beauty and to maintain good manners and welfare of the public."
"For the purpose of implementing the National Parks and Wild Life Conservation Act, these Rules make arrangements regarding national parks and sanctuaries as well as hunting and hunting methods. The most important provisions are made with respect to hunting licenses. The latter are divided into many categories, depending upon the duration, the quota and animals that may be hunted, the rates of the fees to be paid."
"This Act is enacted to implement the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1973 to which Nepal is a party and for regulation and control of international trade thereof. The Act consists of 7 Chapters: Preliminary (I); Provisions concerning Transactions of Endangered wild fauna or flora or specimen thereof (II); Provisions concerning Registration of the Endangered wild fauna or flora or specimen thereof (III); Provisions concerning Management Authority and Scientific Authority (IV); Offences and Punishment (V); Investigation and filing of cases (VI); Miscellaneous provisions (VII)."